Internet OriginsThe World Wide Web is bold, evolving, communications medium providing the promise of up-to-the-minute information to a large global audience. While just one of many applications which run on the Internet, the Wold Wide Web has its roots in the internetworking of Army and Navy facilities which date from around 1961.
By the mid 70's, many Government agencies were connected to what was then called the ARPAnet, but no single language of communication was used and therefore intercommunication was limited to specific project groups. The need for a unifying standard of communication became clear which would cross the boundaries of system hardware and organization
By the early 80's, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) was adopted as the official communications protocol by the Department of Defense. TCP/IP had become the new standard in internetworking, was ported to PCs and mainframes, and remains the backbone of the internet today.
TCP/IP has over 100 different protocols and includes services such as remote logon, file transfers, data indexing among others.
By 1991, many data indexing schemes were used on the internet, but one stood out which featured an intuitive menuing system called Gopher. Though lacking graphics elements and hypertext links, Gopher sites sprang up all over the internet creating a "Gopherspace"
In 1992, The European High-energy Particle Physics Lab (CERN) was the largest internet site in Europe, driving the rest of Europe to get connected to the internet. Tim Berners-Lee created the World Wide Web concept at that time. The WEB extended the gopher concept to include hypertext and more importantly, hypertext links.
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) is the backbone of the web today, allowing graphics and text to be formatted on a computer viewed by web "browsers". HTML has been mostly standardized, but different browser products allow some HTML extensions which are unavailable to others. HTML and browser design is swiftly-evolving.